Monday, November 24, 2008

Friday, November 21, 2008

Eye of the Tiger , Rocky 3 theme song and lyrics

Risin' up, back on the street
Did my time, took my chances
Went the distance now I'm back on my feet
Just a man and his will to survive

So many times it happens too fast
You trade your passion for glory
Don't lose your grip on the dreams of the past
You must fight just to keep them alive

It's the eye of the tiger
It's the thrill of the fight
Rising up to the challenge of our rival
And the last known survivor
Stalks his prey in the night
And he's watching us all
With the eye of the tiger

Face to face, out in the heat
Hangin' tough, stayin' hungry
They stack the odds still we take to the street
For the kill, with the skill to survive

It's the eye of the tiger
It's the thrill of the fight
Rising up to the challenge of our rival
And the last known survivor
Stalks his prey in the night
And he's watching us all
With the eye of the tiger

Risin' up, straight to the top
Had the guts, got the glory
Went the distance, now I'm not gonna stop
Just a man and his will to survive

It's the eye of the tiger
It's the thrill of the fight
Rising up to the challenge of our rival
And the last known survivor
Stalks his prey in the night
And he's watching us all
With the eye of the tiger
The eye of the tiger
The eye of the tiger
The eye of the tiger
The eye of the tiger


Eye of the tiger

WEP CRACKING

taken from  http://m8d.de/news/cracking-wep.html

WEP is not a protection




What is WEP and why you should not use it


WLAN




It can be cracked in minutes!



I am talking about WEP-128 here, which is the most
common version and the "more secure" variant of WEP-64.
I mean "more secure", because WEP-128 needs some minutes
to be cracked and WEP-64 a few seconds. If something
is really done that easily, you cannot say it is
a "protection" scheme or has to do with encryption
and certainly not with privacy. If someone uses
WEP, he/she invites people to his open network.



My equipment is perhaps interesting for you who want
to verify what I write here. I have the following:


All the software needed is contained in BackTrack.
BackTrack is a linux distro made fully for security analysis ( cracking )
If you are really interested download it and try it out. It is awesome. Not just wireless but for all networks. It is the ultimate toolkit for crackers, ;)


You can also use any other wireless LAN adapter.
It would be a great help, if it supports injection,
but it will be less efficient to wait for someone
using his/her wireless network than do it by yourself.
I will explain that below.




Putting the adapter in monitoring mode



One of the most difficult things, perhaps is to put
your wireless adapter into monitoring mode.
Default mode is called managed. In this mode
you connect to one single network. The monitoring mode
listens to everything in the air.




aircrack-ng comes with airmon-ng,
which is a utility to put the most cards in
monitoring mode. It is used like this:



# airmon-ng start <your-wireless-interface>


I will use the tools that come with the madwifi-ng
driver. Usually my wireless LAN interface is already
created as a managed device (here: ath0, device is wifi0), so I have to destroy
it first and then recreate it again as a monitoring
device. Here is how it is done:



# wlanconfig ath0 destroy
# wlanconfig ath1 create wlandev wifi0 wlanmode monitor


That's it. We listen on everything now. Look check
if the device has been really created as ath1
with the command ifconfig -a. Perhaps it got
a higher numeric suffix. I will use ath1
here.



Choosing the victim network



Next step is to start airodump-ng to listen
on all interesting networks. This is really easy:



# airodump-ng -t WEP -t OPN ath1


You will get a similar output like this, in case you
find WEP networks. This is an output from the manpage,
by the way, so do not worry about exposed MAC and BSSID
adresses.



CH 7 ][ BAT: 2 hours 10 mins ][ 2006-03-28 21:00
BSSID PWR Beacons # IV CH MB ENC ESSID

00:13:10:30:24:9C 46 15 3416 6 54. WEP the ssid
00:09:5B:1F:44:10 36 54 0 11 11 OPN NETGEAR

BSSID STATION PWR Packets Probes

00:13:10:30:24:9C 00:09:5B:EB:C5:2B 48 719 the ssid
00:13:10:30:24:9C 00:02:2D:C1:5D:1F 190 17 the ssid


The access points are at the top of the screen
and are sorted by activity. The may disappear from
the screen if there are no packets reaching your
laptop. The number of beacons should be constantly
incrementing. That means that you are near the access
point and the quality is good. Walk around with your
laptop to improve the PWR score.



You can see two access points here. One is called
"the ssid" and the other "NETGEAR". Well, open networks
do not need to be cracked, they are already open, unless
someone uses IPsec on it. But most open networks are
often "protected" by MAC restrictions, which is
quite stupid. See below.




Let's try the WEP one.
Notice the BSSID address at left side and the
channel number 6.
You will need it to optimize your crack. You see
also two clients with their MAC-adresses (column STATION) using
the WEP netword "the ssid". Lucky!



Start sniffing



Stop airodump-ng by pressing Ctrl+C and
restart it again with the following parameters:



# airodump-ng --channel 6 --bssid 00:13:10:30:24:9C -w capture ath1


Now we capture the packets to a file called
capture-01.cap. You need to capture about
70000 to 80000 IVs to crack the most networks.
You don't need to stop airodump-ng while trying out
if you captured enough IVs.



Packet injection for a faster crack



We will assume that IVs aren't captured fast
enough. And you get bored watching the display.
We need two things to optimize the crack.


  • A client must be connected to the network that you want to crack. E.a there must be at least one STATION actively online.
  • You need some packets captured. Sometimes 10 are enough. But let's wait for 100 to 200.



Given both criteria, you can inject packets that
you already captured. The station will recognize them,
because they are encrypted and valid. The most
important is, it will answer them! You need
to be in transmition range for this. If the transmition
power (PWR) is too low, you cannot send
and receive and even worse, you can get faulty packets
that make the crack ineffective.



So let's start the injection to produce IVs!
You need another utility from the aircrack-ng package:
aireplay-ng.



# aireplay-ng --arpreplay -b 00:13:10:30:24:9C -h 00:09:5B:EB:C5:2B
-r capture-01.cap ath1


Start this command in a second terminal.
The -b parameter is the BSSID of
the wireless network. The -h parameter is
the client I want to pretend to be while injecting
packages. I selected the client station
that is the most talkative here. aireplay-ng
will inject ARP packets into the victim wireless
network. It takes the packages from our capture
file that airodump-ng constantly writes to.



When everything works fine, you will see IVs
arriving at a very high rate. That is what we want.
We need at least 70000 of them. Have your time, keep
it going higher. These are only a few minutes!



Cracking the WEP key



Keep injecting and capturing with both utilities and
you can try to crack the WEP key, if you think
you captured enough. Start this command in a third
terminal (keep the other tools running!):



# aircrack-ng -z capture-01.cap


Starting with the -z option needs usually
seconds to find the key or it will interrupt the
crack attempt and wait for more IVs. If you don't
get the key, you can also try without -z.
This will take long and perhaps need even more than
70000 packets. I haven't had the case where -z
did not work, yet.



The successful crack shows the WEP key in
hexadecimal right next to "KEY FOUND!" and
the probability of 100%.



I have the password and cannot connect!




There are several problems that you can have connecting
to a WEP network. We put the most obvious aside:


  • You are too far away. Often, tt's easier to crack the key than to get near enough the access point.
  • You entered the password wrong.
  • You entered the hexadecimal key and the client thinks it is textual.
  • Sometimes you need to setup the authentication mode.



There is one more problem. Some people think that
restricting their access points to certain MAC addresses
will protect them. They are wrong!



Well, remember what we did above. We actually
have their MAC addresses and even
used them already to inject ARP packets.




Defeating the MAC "protection"



If an access point is protected by this mechanism,
simply setup your wireless adapter to the victim's
MAC address, like this:



# ifconfig <your-wireless-interface> hw ether <the-mac-you-want>


This should almost instantly allow you to associate.



Alternatives to WEP



As you can see, WEP is really not secure at all.
That is why, I recommend to use WPA generally instead
of WEP. If your client doesn't have drivers for WPA,
get them quick! I showed you above why.



When you switch to WPA-PSK, which most people do,
use a strong password. One which cannot be looked up
somewhere in a dictionary. The best are random strings
or random hexadecimal numbers. Notice that you
can also try to crack a WPA-PSK network with
aircrack-ng and you just need one special
type of packet called "WPA handshake". This usually
comes when a client is switched on and associates
with the access point.



Scary. But if you choose a strong password, it is
almost impossible to try out the password. aircrack-ng
can try millions of passwords in a few seconds, so
take it seriously! I have a long dictionary here!



Choosing a strong password


Passwords


There a several tools for that. I recommend to use
apg that
can produce good passwords. Even pronounceable, if you
want to memorize them more easily.



If you are really paranoid and don't trust
your own random number generator, you can use dice
and diceware. This
is not a software. You just throw dice and look up
a word in a long list. You get long and good passwords
that are really easy to remeber.



Sunday, November 9, 2008

MERBOK





Automated MDF manufacturing MERBOK


Today we visited Merbok factory curtesy of IEEE.

The factory was fully automated.All were controlled by Allen Bradley PLC s... The number of PLCs were staggering, the io number topped 10000, all the machines were huge and controllers , SCADA were truly exceptional.
I never thought that i will ever see such a huge Automated factory.

The great thing is, this was 100% in line with my training where they do systems which are similar but vastly  smaller in scale.

The machinery was fully automated and the workers were there only for quality assuarance , it is a perfect example of the wonders that can be done with the effiency of a process by automation.



Cheers to this wonderful science which helps man kind to further the boundaries of knowledge !

This is unbelievable


merbok

Friday, November 7, 2008

Cracking Wifi networks

taken from  http://m8d.de/news/cracking-wep.html

WEP is not a protection




What is WEP and why you should not use it


WLAN




It can be cracked in minutes!



I am talking about WEP-128 here, which is the most
common version and the "more secure" variant of WEP-64.
I mean "more secure", because WEP-128 needs some minutes
to be cracked and WEP-64 a few seconds. If something
is really done that easily, you cannot say it is
a "protection" scheme or has to do with encryption
and certainly not with privacy. If someone uses
WEP, he/she invites people to his open network.



My equipment is perhaps interesting for you who want
to verify what I write here. I have the following:




You can also use any other wireless LAN adapter.
It would be a great help, if it supports injection,
but it will be less efficient to wait for someone
using his/her wireless network than do it by yourself.
I will explain that below.




Putting the adapter in monitoring mode



One of the most difficult things, perhaps is to put
your wireless adapter into monitoring mode.
Default mode is called managed. In this mode
you connect to one single network. The monitoring mode
listens to everything in the air.




aircrack-ng comes with airmon-ng,
which is a utility to put the most cards in
monitoring mode. It is used like this:



# airmon-ng start <your-wireless-interface>


I will use the tools that come with the madwifi-ng
driver. Usually my wireless LAN interface is already
created as a managed device (here: ath0, device is wifi0), so I have to destroy
it first and then recreate it again as a monitoring
device. Here is how it is done:



# wlanconfig ath0 destroy
# wlanconfig ath1 create wlandev wifi0 wlanmode monitor


That's it. We listen on everything now. Look check
if the device has been really created as ath1
with the command ifconfig -a. Perhaps it got
a higher numeric suffix. I will use ath1
here.



Choosing the victim network



Next step is to start airodump-ng to listen
on all interesting networks. This is really easy:



# airodump-ng -t WEP -t OPN ath1


You will get a similar output like this, in case you
find WEP networks. This is an output from the manpage,
by the way, so do not worry about exposed MAC and BSSID
adresses.



CH 7 ][ BAT: 2 hours 10 mins ][ 2006-03-28 21:00
BSSID PWR Beacons # IV CH MB ENC ESSID

00:13:10:30:24:9C 46 15 3416 6 54. WEP the ssid
00:09:5B:1F:44:10 36 54 0 11 11 OPN NETGEAR

BSSID STATION PWR Packets Probes

00:13:10:30:24:9C 00:09:5B:EB:C5:2B 48 719 the ssid
00:13:10:30:24:9C 00:02:2D:C1:5D:1F 190 17 the ssid


The access points are at the top of the screen
and are sorted by activity. The may disappear from
the screen if there are no packets reaching your
laptop. The number of beacons should be constantly
incrementing. That means that you are near the access
point and the quality is good. Walk around with your
laptop to improve the PWR score.



You can see two access points here. One is called
"the ssid" and the other "NETGEAR". Well, open networks
do not need to be cracked, they are already open, unless
someone uses IPsec on it. But most open networks are
often "protected" by MAC restrictions, which is
quite stupid. See below.




Let's try the WEP one.
Notice the BSSID address at left side and the
channel number 6.
You will need it to optimize your crack. You see
also two clients with their MAC-adresses (column STATION) using
the WEP netword "the ssid". Lucky!



Start sniffing



Stop airodump-ng by pressing Ctrl+C and
restart it again with the following parameters:



# airodump-ng --channel 6 --bssid 00:13:10:30:24:9C -w capture ath1


Now we capture the packets to a file called
capture-01.cap. You need to capture about
70000 to 80000 IVs to crack the most networks.
You don't need to stop airodump-ng while trying out
if you captured enough IVs.



Packet injection for a faster crack



We will assume that IVs aren't captured fast
enough. And you get bored watching the display.
We need two things to optimize the crack.


  • A client must be connected to the network that you want to crack. E.a there must be at least one STATION actively online.
  • You need some packets captured. Sometimes 10 are enough. But let's wait for 100 to 200.



Given both criteria, you can inject packets that
you already captured. The station will recognize them,
because they are encrypted and valid. The most
important is, it will answer them! You need
to be in transmition range for this. If the transmition
power (PWR) is too low, you cannot send
and receive and even worse, you can get faulty packets
that make the crack ineffective.



So let's start the injection to produce IVs!
You need another utility from the aircrack-ng package:
aireplay-ng.



# aireplay-ng --arpreplay -b 00:13:10:30:24:9C -h 00:09:5B:EB:C5:2B
-r capture-01.cap ath1


Start this command in a second terminal.
The -b parameter is the BSSID of
the wireless network. The -h parameter is
the client I want to pretend to be while injecting
packages. I selected the client station
that is the most talkative here. aireplay-ng
will inject ARP packets into the victim wireless
network. It takes the packages from our capture
file that airodump-ng constantly writes to.



When everything works fine, you will see IVs
arriving at a very high rate. That is what we want.
We need at least 70000 of them. Have your time, keep
it going higher. These are only a few minutes!



Cracking the WEP key



Keep injecting and capturing with both utilities and
you can try to crack the WEP key, if you think
you captured enough. Start this command in a third
terminal (keep the other tools running!):



# aircrack-ng -z capture-01.cap


Starting with the -z option needs usually
seconds to find the key or it will interrupt the
crack attempt and wait for more IVs. If you don't
get the key, you can also try without -z.
This will take long and perhaps need even more than
70000 packets. I haven't had the case where -z
did not work, yet.



The successful crack shows the WEP key in
hexadecimal right next to "KEY FOUND!" and
the probability of 100%.



I have the password and cannot connect!




There are several problems that you can have connecting
to a WEP network. We put the most obvious aside:


  • You are too far away. Often, tt's easier to crack the key than to get near enough the access point.
  • You entered the password wrong.
  • You entered the hexadecimal key and the client thinks it is textual.
  • Sometimes you need to setup the authentication mode.



There is one more problem. Some people think that
restricting their access points to certain MAC addresses
will protect them. They are wrong!



Well, remember what we did above. We actually
have their MAC addresses and even
used them already to inject ARP packets.




Defeating the MAC "protection"



If an access point is protected by this mechanism,
simply setup your wireless adapter to the victim's
MAC address, like this:



# ifconfig <your-wireless-interface> hw ether <the-mac-you-want>


This should almost instantly allow you to associate.



Alternatives to WEP



As you can see, WEP is really not secure at all.
That is why, I recommend to use WPA generally instead
of WEP. If your client doesn't have drivers for WPA,
get them quick! I showed you above why.



When you switch to WPA-PSK, which most people do,
use a strong password. One which cannot be looked up
somewhere in a dictionary. The best are random strings
or random hexadecimal numbers. Notice that you
can also try to crack a WPA-PSK network with
aircrack-ng and you just need one special
type of packet called "WPA handshake". This usually
comes when a client is switched on and associates
with the access point.



Scary. But if you choose a strong password, it is
almost impossible to try out the password. aircrack-ng
can try millions of passwords in a few seconds, so
take it seriously! I have a long dictionary here!



Choosing a strong password


Passwords


There a several tools for that. I recommend to use
apg that
can produce good passwords. Even pronounceable, if you
want to memorize them more easily.



If you are really paranoid and don't trust
your own random number generator, you can use dice
and diceware. This
is not a software. You just throw dice and look up
a word in a long list. You get long and good passwords
that are really easy to remeber.



Tuesday, November 4, 2008

11 th Asian Kyokushin Tournament

Linux Jokes

Anti MS-Windows jokes:

MicroSoft is not the answer, MicroSoft is the question, the answer is no.

Why
does the DOS version of a program always run faster on a 2 MB 16 MHz
386SX than the Windows version on a 8 MB 66 MHz 486DX2?


Is MicroSoft a new toilet paper or what?

The
PC has created anarchy. Hardware and software have been thrown together
in random configurations at the whim of any employee with access to an
expense voucher and a computer catalogue. The result has been a
financial and administrative nightmare for corporations.


640K ought to be enough for anybody said Bill Gates in 1981.

I wonder how much the harddisk and RAM producers pay the Windows developers to write such resource-demanding programs.

Question: How many Microsoft engineers do you need to replace a broken light-bulb?
Answer: None, Microsoft will standardize the darkness in such cases!

Windows-95 makes Unix look like an operating system !

Competition of writing books about elephants:
IBM: Big blue elephant.
Novell: Linking elephants.
Microsoft: Why you must buy Windows 95.

PnP = Plug Not Play

PnP = Plug aNd Phone

PnP = Plus aNd Pray

1995: DOS is dead. Bill.
1998: Bill is dead. DOS.

1995: DOS is dead. Bill.
1998: C:\>copy con prn
Bill is dead.
^Z


Question:What is the difference between Windows and an apple ?
Answer:Apples only fall down once a year.

NT = Not Today

If MicroSoft would sell cars:
the model of a given year would be available one year later
you have to buy a new car, if any traffic signs change
your car would stop sometimes and for some reason you think this is normal
you can only drive in your car alone except if you have a Car95 or a CarNT
there would be no controls for oil, gas or breaks - only a "unknown error" light
people would be fascinated by all these new features in car95 like doors and gearboxes
they will have to use MicroSoft gas

Windows = cheap Mac clone

An Intel PC has four protections modes: Abort, Retry, Fail and Reboot

Windows
95: 32 bit extensions and a graphical shell for a 16 bit patch to an 8
bit operating system originally coded for a 4 bit microprocessor,
written by a 2 bit company that can't stand 1 bit of competition.


NT is not enterprise ready until MS is willing to support it.

Bill
Gates: If GM (General Motors) had kept up with technology like the
computer industry has, we would all be driving twenty five dollar cars
that got 1000 miles/gallon.
General Motors: Yes, but would you want your car to crash twice a day?


error
#123: This system has been running Windows for more than 6 hours
without an error. Something must be wrong! Please reboot!

MS Windows - the 3270 of the 21st century.

In a world without walls and fences - who needs windows and gates ?

"The
obvious mathematical breakthrough would be development of an easy way
to factor large prime numbers" [Bill Gates, The Road Ahead, p.265]


GM vs MS
At a recent computer expo (COMDEX), Bill Gates reportedly compared the computer industry with the auto industry and stated:
"If
GM had kept up with technology like the computer industry has, we would
all be driving twenty-five dollar cars that got 1,000 miles to the
gallon."

In response to Bill's comments, General Motors issued a press release stating (by Mr. Welch himself):
"If GM had developed technology like Microsoft, we would all be driving cars with the following characteristics:
For no reason whatsoever your car would crash twice a day.
Every time they painted new lines on the road you would have to buy a new car.
Occasionally your car would die on the freeway for no reason, and you would just accept this, restart and drive on.
Occasionally,
executing a maneuver such as a left turn, would cause your car to shut
down and refuse to restart, in which case you would have to reinstall
the engine.
Only one person at a time could use the car, unless you bought "Car95" or "CarNT". But then you would have to buy more seats.
Macintosh
would make a car that was powered by the sun, reliable, five times as
fast, and twice as easy to drive, but would only run on five percent of
the roads.
The oil, water temperature and alternator warning lights would be replaced by a single "general car default" warning light.
New seats would force everyone to have the same size butt.
The airbag system would say "Are you sure?" before going off.
Occasionally
for no reason whatsoever, your car would lock you out and refuse to let
you in until you simultaneously lifted the door handle, turned the key,
and grab hold of the radio antenna.
GM would also require all car
buyers to also purchase a deluxe set of Rand McNally road maps (now a
GM subsidiary), even though they neither need them nor want them.
Attempting to delete this option would immediately cause the car's
performance to diminish by 50% or more. Moreover, GM would become a
target for investigation by the Justice Department.
Every time GM
introduced a new model car buyers would have to learn how to drive all
over again because none of the controls would operate in the same
manner as the old car.
You'd press the "start" button to shut off the engine.

NT
= New Teflon (Wall Street alone are reported to have thrown over 100
million dollars down the drain on failed NT projects, but nothing
sticks ...)


Question: Who said the name Microsoft and when ?
Answer: Bill Gates wife at their wedding night !

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Anti UNIX jokes:

If Unix is the answer, then it must have been a stupid question.

Unix is the only virus with a command-interface.

How can an operating system from 1970 (UNIX) be more modern than an operating system from 1978 (VMS)?

Unix - the first computer virus.

NFS = Nightmare File System.

Berkeley is famous for LSD and BSD UNIX. I don't think that is a coincidence.

Sure, the Unix file system corrupts your files, but look how fast it is!

Friends don't let friends use Unix.

Unix - the ideal operating system for CPU's that are never powered up.

Nothing wrong with Unix that a total redesign and rewrite can not fix.

UNIX
will be preempted by NT. UNIX doesn't know it yet - it won't notice
until it's too late, because UNIX is the Yugoslavia of software, at war
with itself -- but it's all over.

The users of Unix
systems said speed wasn't an issue when the Alpha chip was released.
The same people tell their wives and girlfriends that size doesn't
matter.


If Unix were a beer, then it would be shipped in open casks so that anybody could p### in it before delivery.

UNIX is user friendly. It's just selective about who its friends are.

UNIX
is akin to a religion to some. If things aren't done like they are in
UNIX, then they must be bad. Sorry, I don't believe in this religion.

UNIX is a four-letter word!

VI = Virtually Incomprehensible.

Unix is about as user friendly as a blow in the back from an ice-pick, only not quite as productive.

What has happened, when a system-manager gets gray-haired in one day ? One day with a UNIX system !

How do you pronounce UNIX ? You Nix !

The
sad thing about UNIX is that no matter how many times you hit yourself
over the head with it, you never quite manage to completely lose
consciousness.

Cretin and UNIX both start with C.

The scariest thing about Jurassic Park was that the control systems were Unix.

I used to do VMS, now I do Unix - it's a living.

Why
is using a UNIX system like being an Eunuch? Everytime you go to do
something important, you realize something critical is missing.

Why aren't there many female unix users? They don't think about to ask a man for help!

UNIX programmers are like witch doctors. They think they have to be covered with scars to show how powerful they are.

UNIX on Alpha ? Why run a 2-bit operating system on 64-bit hardware ?

UNIX
and NT were talking about security and reliability. After some time
they concluded, that they would like to be like VMS, when they grow up.


NFS = Not Fully Serviceable.

NFS = No File Security.

, Mike

Is Windows a virus?



No, Windows is not a virus. Here's what
viruses do:


1) They replicate quickly -- Okay, Windows does that.


2) Viruses use up valuable system resources, slowing
down the system as they
do so -- Okay, Windows does that.


3) Viruses will, from time to time, trash your hard
disk -- Okay, Windows does
that, too


4) Viruses are usually carried, unknown to the user, along with
valuable
programs and systems -- Sigh... Windows does that, too


5) Viruses will occasionally make the user suspect
their system is too slow (see 2) and the user will buy new hardware -- Yup,
that's with
Windows, too




Until now it seems Windows is a virus but there
are fundamental differences:


Viruses are well supported by their authors, are running on
most systems, their
program code is fast, compact and efficient and they tend to become
more
sophisticated as they mature.




So, Windows is not a virus!



Top ten reasons that Bill Gates would run for president...



1) He wants to buy an old Cesna, paintit flashy colors, and call
it Air Force
'95.


2) He heard that some government agencies were using LINUX.


3) He wants to get that illegal sports car in SF Bay into the US.


4) He just thinks it would be neat to be president of two big thingies.


5) He's hot for Janet Reno.


6) His ego needs to be inflated.


7) He lost the key to his mansion, so he needs a new place to live.


8) He thinks that he can use MS Money to balance the budget.


9) He feels that Perot just didn't throw enough money at it.


10) He wants to make Windows '98 the official operating system of the USA.

LInux Jokes


Three male programmers were in the bathroom standing at the urinals.


The first programmer finishes, walks over to the sink to wash his hands.


He then proceeds to dry his hands very carefully. He uses paper towel after
paper towel and ensures that every single spot of water on his hands is dried.


Turning to the other two, he says, "At Microsoft, we are trained to be
extremely thorough."


The second programmer finishes his task at the urinal and he proceeds to wash
his hands. He uses a single paper towel and makes sure that he dries his hands
using every available portion of the paper towel.


He turns and says, "At Intel not only are we trained to be extremely thorough
but we are also trained to be extremely efficient."


The third programmer finished and walks straight for the door, shouting over
his shoulder, "At Sun, we don`t piss on our hands.


Courtesy of Syid Arif






Thursday, October 30, 2008

Invalid partition table Error

All hell came lose when i used Hiren's boot disk(or some other partition doctor software ) and so in its diagnostic that there is an error in MBR(but it worked well) so curious to see what happens i selected repair.............

And then i couldn't boot from HD gives Invalid partition table Error............

The thing is i had linux partitions in HD and this software has interpreted it as an error......

Two partition have been marked as active-----------------> this gives Invalid partition table Error



So what did I do


With xp boot disk booted in recovery mode............ :(  then did FIXMBR @ cmd prompt, but it didn't
 work.


Then used from Hiren's boot disk Norton partition doctor ----> diagnostic ------------>repair


And hey all boot errors solved...

no need to format the whole thing and lose all data and make it a mess.....

Wednesday, October 29, 2008

PowerGrid’s undersea line to link India, Sri Lanka



















Sanjay Jog

Posted: Apr 13, 2008 at 0039 hrs IST

Updated: Apr 13, 2008 at 0039 hrs IST




The state-run PowerGrid
Corporation of India proposes to lay down an under sea line between
India and Sri Lanka. The proposed undersea high voltage direct current
(HVDC) transmission line will be for the transfer of 500-mw, which will
be subsequently upgraded to 1,000 mw.

According to power ministry sources, “The
proposed undersea transmi-ssion line entails an invest-ment of around
Rs 1,500 crore. A pre-feasibility study is being carried out by the
PowerGrid Corporation for the proposed venture. So far undersea HVDC
transmission lines are in place between the UK and the France for
transmission of 2,000 mw.” PowerGrid Corporation’s plan was according
to the bilateral investment arrange-ment between India and Sri Lanka,
sources said.

The proposed undersea transmission line could be
useful for NTPC which plans to set up 500 mw imported coal-based power
project at Trincomalee in Sri Lanka. PowerGrid has installed inter
regional transmission capacity of 18,000 mw and plans to increase it to
37,000 mw by 2012.

PowerGrid has lined up an investment plan of Rs 55,000 crore for the same to be completed during the 11th Plan.

Earlier, power minister Sushilkumar Shinde asserted
that the infamous Enron chapter was closed and more and more investors
from abroad mainly from the US were keen to invest in the India’s power
sector.

Undersea power to Sri Lanka

Undersea power to Sri Lanka


Gestation period of forty two months


By Chandani Kirinde



The proposed India-Sri Lanka Electricity Grid Interconnection project
which aims to lay an undersea power line between Rameshwaran in South
India and Talaimannar could be commissioned within 42 months from the
inception of the work on the project, according to the pre-feasibility
report on it.


It has been
estimated that the project will cost around Rs 4.8 billion. The basis
for the cost estimates have been based on quotations from leading HVDC
(high voltage. direct current) equipment manufacturers in Sweden,
France and Germany.







The
pre-feasibility report is to be followed up by a full feasibility study
to be undertaken jointly by the two countries shortly, The Sunday Times
learns.


According to the pre
feasibility report, the proximity of the location of India and Sri
Lanka provides for the opportunity of power exchange between these two
countries through transmission interconnection.



The power supply position of India is envisaged to improve with the
commissioning of planned capacity additions, especially in the southern
region which is expected to have a large quantum of surplus supplies
between 2011 and 2012, reaching a peak surplus of around 6000 MW and an
off peak surplus of 12,300 MW.


The
interconnection of the southern grid with Sri Lanka shall help in
enlarging the power market reach for generation projects in India to
export power from India to Sri Lanka while Sri Lanka shall have access
to the competitive power availability in the Indian power market, the
Report said.


Sri Lanka, at present
is dominated by hydro power (50 per cent) but this hydro dominance
would reduce progressively in future as the future generations are
mainly thermal based. India on the other hand has a substantial amount
of hydro based generation (overall 26 per cent)



The Report said that the transfer of power from India to Sri Lanka
would also reduce the use of expensive thermal generation in Sri Lanka
based on liquid fuels.Thus the link will be mutuality beneficial to
both the countries with Sri Lanka achieving significant savings on cost
by importing cheaper power from India while India would benefit from
having access to newer market to sell surplus power.



The power supply scenario of both countries suggests that in the short
term period (2009-2010), India and Sri Lanka can exchange power to the
tune of about 500 MW. The quantum of power exchange can be enhanced to
about 1000 MW in the medium time period (2011-2012) when both the
countries would have reasonable experience in exchange of power as well
as a comfortable power supply scenario.



As of now, with the projected power scenario, it is envisaged to retain
the capacity of exchange of power of 1000 MW in the long term as well
(2015-2016). While planning the interconnection, flexibility need to be
provided so that either side can transfer power up to 1000 MW depending
upon the availability and demand for power, the Report said.



The transmission system between India and Sri Lankan need to be planned
judiciously as it would involve expensive submarine cables. The
transmission line would be 400 KV HVDC overhead lines from Madurai to
the Indian coast (near Rameshwaram (139 km), a 400 KV HVDC cable from
the Indian sea coast to the Sri Lankan sea coast (39 km), a 400 KV HVDC
overhead line from the Sri Lankan coast to Anuradhapura/Puttalam
(125km).



A detailed marine survey is to be carried out prior to the laying of
the undersea/submarine cables. The cable survey will look into the
traffic of movements of ships in the area, depth of sea, earthquake
zones and volcanic actives as well as the presence of sharks in that
area of sea.

India-Sri Lanka power transfer project

India-Sri Lanka power transfer project
feasibility report soon



Mar 16, 2008 - Anil Sasi - The Hindu Business
Line


$450-m submarine cable link to connect Madurai and Anuradhapura


New Delhi - The feasibility study for the proposed $450-million
mega undersea power transmission link between India and
Sri Lanka is slated to be ready shortly.

The 200-km submarine cable would enable India to export
electricity to the island nation and is likely to be set
up with a capacity to wheel around 1,000 MW of electricity,
government officials involved in the exercise said.

The report on the HVDC (high voltage direct current) link
between the two countries is being prepared by State-owned
transmission major Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd (PGCIL),
which had earlier estimated that it can set up the link
in around 40 months once all clearances are in place, officials
said.

The link is likely to connect Madurai in Tamil Nadu and
Anuradhapura in Sri Lanka’s North Central Province.

While a joint Steering Committee has been set up to oversee
the project, a task force comprising representatives of
the Power Ministry, Central Electricity Authority and PGCIL
on the Indian side and the Sri Lankan Energy Ministry and
Ceylon Electricity Board (CEB) on the other, has been firmed
up to study the feasibility report and make recommendations
to the Committee.

Officials said Indian utilities could get higher tariffs
from electricity supplies to the country. Initially, surplus
power would be transmitted from India to Sri Lanka using
the link.

With NTPC Ltd, already working on a 500-MW coal fired plant
in Trincomalee, wheeling power from Sri Lanka to India could
also be a possibility over the long term, they said.

Sri Lanka’s Cabinet of Ministers had, early last year,
given its go-ahead to its Energy Ministry on the project
and the United States Agency for International Development
is reportedly extending technical assistance to Sri Lanka.
Sri Lanka currently uses diesel — one of the most expensive
power generating resource — for nearly 65 per cent of its
power generation. The generation cost there is around Sri
Lankan Rupees 15 per unit (about Indian Rs 6.21 per unit),
according to CEB data. India currently has transmission
links with only Bhutan, as part of the 1,040 MW Tala hydroelectric
power evacuation system. The proposal to link-up countries
in the South Asian region is being seen as a forerunner
to the proposed BIMSTEC power transmission network, which
is under active consideration.

Saturday, October 25, 2008

Settings for SLT ADSL connection.


Tryingto put up the new single port ADSL router(comtrend CT 5611) did cause me some sweat....
But it made me richer by 2000 bucks.....(SLT poorer by that)

So this is for you guys to get the job done quickly.

1.The settings(ADSL password and usr name) should be entered to the router and should be configured via the PC.

first install the driver(in router CD) for the USB connection.

2.Then connect the router according to instructions (a splitter is not essential if u do not use phone and internet at the same time)..
If the ADSL connection for your line is activated the Front panel LED - "ADSL link" will be lighted continously, without blinking....

if not
the ADSL signal is not available in the line... Pls contact ISP(SLT) and inform... They haven't activated the ADSL connection

first go to network places->view network connections->right click on USB remote NDIS device->properties->TCP/IP-> use following IP - 192.168.1.3
Default Gateway- 192.168.1.1

3. Then open browser
Enter the ip needed to access router interface @ address bar(192.168.1.1)

The settings presented here are almost the same in all routers
WAN
protocal------------PPPoE

LAN IP Address: *192.168.1.1
Default Gateway: 220.247.232.7-----this will be automatically detected dont insert it(this is what u will see after connecting all other data should be entered)
Primary DNS Server: *203.115.0.46
Secondary DNS Server: *203.115.0.47


WAN Info

*VPI/VCI Con. ID *Category Service Interface Protocol Igmp QoS State Status IP Address
8/35 1 UBR TEST2 ppp_8_35_1 PPPoE Disabled Disabled Enabled Up 124.43.208.106



Service Category:


Connection Type

Select the type of network protocol and encapsulation mode over the ATM PVC that your ISP has instructed you to use. Note that 802.1q VLAN tagging is only available for PPPoE, MER and Bridging.

PPP over ATM (PPPoA)
* PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE)
MAC Encapsulation Routing (MER)
IP over ATM (IPoA)
Bridging


Encapsulation Mode



configuration. Also, once you select WAN service over (eth0), you cannot configure any other ATM PVCs until the WAN service over Ethernet entry is deleted.



ATM PVC Configuration
This screen allows you to configure an ATM PVC identifier (VPI and VCI) and select a service category. Otherwise choose an existing interface by selecting the checkbox to enable it.

VPI: [0-255] 8
VCI: [32-65535] 35

Service Category:

Enable Quality Of Service

Enabling packet level QoS for a PVC improves performance for selected classes of applications. QoS cannot be set for CBR and Realtime VBR. QoS consumes system resources; therefore the number of PVCs will be reduced. Use Advanced Setup/Quality of Service to assign priorities for the applications.

Enable Quality Of Service





PPP Username and Password

PPP usually requires that you have a user name and password to establish your connection. In the boxes below, enter the user name and password that your ISP has provided to you.

PPP Username: GIven usr name in SLT sealed envelope
PPP Password: GIven paswd in SLT sealed envelope
PPPoE Service Name:
Authentication Method:PAP

Dial on demand (with idle timeout timer)
PPP IP extension
Use Static IP Address


1

Enable IGMP Multicast, and WAN Service

Enable IGMP Multicast
Enable WAN Service
Service Name





WAN Setup - Summary

Make sure that the settings below match the settings provided by your ISP.

VPI / VCI: 8 / 35
Connection Type: PPPoE
Service Name: TEST2
Service Category: UBR
IP Address: Automatically Assigned
Service State: Enabled
NAT: Enabled
Firewall: Enabled
IGMP Multicast: Disabled
Quality Of Service: Disabled

Click "Save" to save these settings. Click "Back" to make any modifications.
NOTE: You need to reboot to activate this WAN interface and further configure services over this interface.




SAVE AND REBOOT ROUTER.......

again go to network places->view network connections->right click on USB remote NDIS device->properties->TCP/IP-> obtain an IP adress automatically
Default Gateway- erase

But give the DNS servers as:

DNS: 203.115.0.46/47

OK.....................................................................................


Now open browser and change internet connection to Auto detect proxy settings for the network (options in firefox)


Now u should be able to browse the internet


check if connection works by typing hasala.tk at the address bar....................

wish u many years of happy surfing....


any questions forword to me or me











































































*The ones u have to enter